These students have weak immediacy. This means that compared to other students, they are slow to come up with the right answers to basic math problems like 6 x 8, or 35 divided by 7. While other kids have the answer stored in their memory, these kids do not. This causes big problems when they try to work through the more complex problems they encounter in junior high math.
When a child learns to relate math to everyday questions, he will be great at it from the simplest addition all the way to trigonometry. To convert percentages, decimals and fractions is thus one essential skill.
Solve vertical and horizontal computation problems
As a middle-school math teacher, I have seen many students who do understand abstract concepts, and even enjoy learning about things like Pi and the Pythagorean Theorem, but who appear to be unable to do so due to a weak grasp of math fundamentals.